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CHALLENGES” A three volume compendium of selected papers (Oxford
University Press, India: 2016)
The essays cover major topics in Sen's work, such as the capability approach, freedom, social choice, justice, agency, “missing women”, and development and well-being. Perspectives are drawn from both developing and developed countries, with most of the authors applying Sen's concepts to cultural, geographic and historical contexts which differ from his original applications.
highlights include a wide-ranging conversation between the book's editors
and Sen on many aspects of his work, and an essay by Sen himself on why
he is disinclined to provide a definitive list of capabilities. The volume
also contains some of Sen’s original writings, as ready references
to be read in conjunction with the contributed essays.
Economic analysis and policies concerning women have long been preoccupied with employment. This book argues that the single most important economic factor affecting women's situation is the gender gap in command over property.
Women's direct ownership and control of land can be crucial for enhancing their well-being, their bargaining power within and outside the household, and their overall empowerment. And it can have wide-ranging implications for poverty alleviation and production efficiency. In particular, the book outlines the effects of a lack of control over land and property on the lives and livelihoods of women across South Asia. It examines the property rights women enjoyed historically, traces changes over time, and their rights under contemporary law. It analyses the factors underlying a gap between law and practice and between nominal ownership and effective control. It examines forms of women’s covert and overt resistance. And it spells out alternative scenarios and policy options that could facilitate women gaining effective rights in land and other property.
Covering five countries - India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Nepal, and Sri Lanka - in a bold sweep of comparative, interdisciplinary scholarship, the book brings to the analysis originality, rigour and complex historical, legal, socio-economic, and cultural perspectives. It draws on economic, ethnographic, historical, political, and legal sources; the author's fieldwork in north and northeast India; and extensive field visits and interviews in all five countries. The theoretical and analytical issues addressed here have relevance much beyond South Asia.
by academics, activists and policy makers globally, and variously described
by reviewers as “a tour-de-force of inter-disciplinarity (The Economic
Journal), “a brilliant and exhaustive work” (The Sociological
Bulletin), and “the product of great erudition” (Health Transition
Review), the book has won several international and national awards. LINKS
Author: Bina Agarwal
With depleting forests and rapidly shrinking supplies of firewood and charcoal, a vast section of the Third World population, still dependent primarily on such woodfuels for its domestic needs, faced a severe crisis by the 1980s. Drawing upon evidence from Asia, Africa and Latin America, this book analyzes the scale of this other energy crisis, its complex causes, and its consequences, both at the individual level for the millions who rely on woodfuels, and overall for the ecological and agricultural systems of these countries. The solutions being offered for its alleviation are also critically examined.
finds that most attempts by governments and international agencies to
promote afforestation and improved wood-burning stoves as solutions had
little success. In particular, few reached or benefited the rural poor
who were the principal sufferers of woodfuel shortages. Why did these
efforts fail? The book provides several pointers. Within the wider political
economy context, it questions whether truly effective solutions to the
crisis are possible without measures to reduce existing socio-economic
(especially land-based) inequalities; and without economic policies oriented
to a more energy-efficient and ecologically sustainable form of development.
The book also contributes to the debate on factors affecting the diffusion
of rural innovations.
Author: Bina Agarwal
Located within the debate on choice of technique in agriculture, this book, based on careful empirical analysis, examines the possible ways by which the mechanization of agriculture in a labor surplus economy such as India, can lead to a conflict between the twin objectives of higher output and higher employment.
mechanization, it is argued here, is essentially a mixed package. Since
different farm operations and crops lend themselves to different degrees
and forms of mechanization, the implications are likely to vary by technique,
operation and crop. Unlike most existing studies which confined themselves
to the impact, principally of tractors, on total farm output and employment,
this study, through a detailed statistical analysis of cost of production
data, disaggregates the output and employment implications of tractors,
tubewells and threshers by crop and operation, and by the ownership and
hire of equipment, for different farm size groups. The employment effect
is further separated by family, permanent and casual labor; and a new
index of cropping intensity, based on the time duration of crops, is specified.
The book's disaggregative and innovative approach and rigorous empirical
analysis is a significant point of departure from previous studies and
leads to quite different policy conclusions.
Editor: Bina Agarwal
development gender-neutral? The essays in this volume indicate otherwise.
They trace the complex and often interlinked ways in which the state,
the community and the household both structure and are structured by male
bias. Mostly focused on contemporary developments, the volume examines
the gender impact of agricultural growth strategies in Sri Lanka, Malaysia,
India and China; export-oriented industrialization in Southeast Asia;
the new population policies in Malaysia and Singapore; and the rise of
religious fundamentalism in Iran and elsewhere. These diverse themes are
analytically woven together in the book's detailed introduction that also
provides a comparative international perspective. It shows how the state,
the community and the household can be seen as interacting structures
embodying pulls and pressures which may, at specific junctures and in
different country contexts, converge or move in contradictory directions,
in the latter case providing spaces for building countervailing resistance.
Editors: Nancy Folbre, Barbara Bergmann, Bina Agarwal and Maria Floro
in this volume (selected from papers presented at the International Economic
Association Congress in Athens, 1989) examine the nature of gender bias
in public policies and its effect on women's work in the labor market
and at home, in both developing and developed countries. The topics explored
include the feminization of poverty, tax disincentives and women's labor
force participation, and the penalties of part-time work, in a diverse
range of countries such as Pakistan, Japan, East Germany and the United
Editors: Haleh Afshar and Bina Agarwal
Poverty makes it necessary for all household members to engage in income-generating work. But prevailing ideologies and social norms may demand a rigid gender division of labor, emphasize motherhood and domesticity for women, and confine them to specific activities within circumscribed spaces. Poor women can thus be faced with conflicting choices between survival needs and social status within the community.
experiences from South and Southeast Asia, this book examines such possible
contradictions between the economic interests of women in poor Asian households
and prevailing gender ideologies and associated cultural practices. As
the case studies show, women experience this conflict in greater degree
in South Asian countries than in those of Southeast Asia, and resolve
the conflict in different ways.